It is a perfectly logically possibility that some features of our universe are anthropically determined. If such a possibility is predicted by a theory that is viable in all other ways, then one should take it seriously as long as it can be tested. If one cannot test this particular prediction, then one might find it a compelling argument, but one will never know if it is correct. He has made seminal contributions to the theory of cosmological inflation, the idea that the universe may contain topological remnants from particle physics phase transitions, to quantum cosmology, and to many other central topics. Perhaps most importantly for the ideas in his book, he has been an architect of the idea of eternal inflation, and one of the primary researchers embracing its implications for the anthropic principle.
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Shelves: physical-reality , physics A theoretical search for parallel universes This book is not for the faint hearted; it requires basic knowledge of physics and cosmology. Parallel universes, also known as multiverse are a set of universes that comprise all of physical and quantum reality.
Our universe is a very small island in a vast ocean of numerous universes separated by false vacuum; in essence these are a set of disconnected space-time domains, and our reach to another universe in the multiverse is constrained by special A theoretical search for parallel universes This book is not for the faint hearted; it requires basic knowledge of physics and cosmology.
Our universe is a very small island in a vast ocean of numerous universes separated by false vacuum; in essence these are a set of disconnected space-time domains, and our reach to another universe in the multiverse is constrained by special theory of relativity.
Parallel universes have been theoretically predicted by several cosmologists, and the structure of a universe and relationship with other universes depend on the theory. The book chapter introduces relativity and cosmology, and chapters discuss the central ideas of eternal cosmic inflation: Einstein used the antigravity of the vacuum in the universe to balance the gravitational pull of matter to keep the universe static, and called this cosmological constant.
There are two types of vacuum; false vacuum and true vacuum. According to modern theories of elementary particles, vacuum is a physical object and it can only be charged with energy and can exist in different states.
The lowest energy vacuum is true vacuum. High energy vacuum state is called false vacuum, and because it is unstable it decays into true vacuum; releasing the excess energy in a fiery burst Big bang of fundamental particles. There are two false vacuum states; electroweak and grand unified vacuum, and both have more symmetry and less diversity among particles and their interactions. For example, in electroweak vacuum, electrons are mass-less and are like neutrinos, in addition electromagnetic, and weak interactions have the same strength and manifested as a single force.
In the grand unified vacuum, all three types of particle interactions are unified, and electrons, neutrons and quarks are interchangeable. For false vacuum repulsion is three times stronger than gravity. At an early epoch when the universe was in a state of false vacuum the matter density was insufficient to balance the universe in a static state, at this time repulsive gravity of the false vacuum may have prevailed leading the universe into a frenzied expansion with much of the space occupied by false vacuum.
One of the requirements is that the false vacuum must decay smoothly, after at least several hundreds of doubling time, so that the universe would have expanded beyond the current observable part, and thereby preventing the universe to collapse before it had the opportunity to expand. During inflation, two rival processes were occurring; false vacuum decay characterized by a half-life, and false vacuum-space-multiplication expansion characterized by its doubling time.
False vacuum regions multiply expand much faster than they decay. This means that the inflation never ends in the multiverse and the volume of inflating regions keeps growing unabated resulting in eternal inflation. According to this theory, at any given moment some distant parts of the multiverse are filled with false vacuum and are undergoing exponential inflationary expansion, but regions like ours the inflation has ended inflation must not be confused with normal universe expansion.
Because of inflation the space between these islands individual universe rapidly expands making room for more island universes to form; this inflation becomes a runaway process. The decay of the last false vacuum in any particular region of the multiverse results in a Big Bang releasing the vast amounts of energy in the form fundamental particles.
This is a one time event for one universe but Big bang is not a one time event in multiverse manifold. The author knows that the physical evidence for the existence of parallel universes multiverse is impossible to obtain because of the limitations imposed by special theory of relativity. In an era of modern cosmology and String theory, the stringent requirements for experimental evidences in support of mathematical calculations have been greatly violated.
Many publishers and authors have misused this situation to their advantage to market a product that is a more a science fiction than a scientific reality.
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Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes