Wilfrid Voynich Alcune delle figure femminili della sezione biologica, f. Sezione II fogli : chiamata astronomica o astrologica , presenta 25 diagrammi che sembrano richiamare delle stelle. Vi si riconoscono anche alcuni segni zodiacali. Anche in questo caso risulta alquanto arduo stabilire di cosa effettivamente tratti questa sezione.
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Codicology[ edit ] The codicology , or physical characteristics of the manuscript, has been studied by researchers. The manuscript measures From the various numbering gaps in the quires and pages, it seems likely that in the past the manuscript had at least pages in 20 quires, some of which were already missing when Wilfrid Voynich acquired the manuscript in The results were consistent for all samples tested and indicated a date for the parchment between and The parchment was created with care, but deficiencies exist and the quality is assessed as average, at best.
Based on modern analysis using polarized light microscopy PLM , it has been determined that a quill pen and iron gall ink were used for the text and figure outlines; the colored paint was applied somewhat crudely to the figures, possibly at a later date. The ink of the drawings, text and page and quire numbers have similar microscopic characteristics. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS performed in revealed that the inks contained major amounts of iron, sulfur , potassium , calcium and carbon and trace amounts of copper and occasionally zinc.
EDS did not show the presence of lead, while X-ray diffraction XRD identified potassium lead oxide , potassium hydrogen sulphate and syngenite in one of the samples tested. The similarity between the drawing inks and text inks suggested a contemporaneous origin. The blue paint proved to be ground azurite with minor traces of the copper oxide cuprite.
The white paint is likely a mixture of eggwhite and calcium carbonate , while the green paint is tentatively characterized by copper and copper- chlorine resinate; the crystalline material might be atacamite or another copper-chlorine compound. Analysis of the red-brown paint indicated a red ochre with the crystal phases hematite and iron sulfide. Minor amounts of lead sulfide and palmierite were possibly present in the red-brown paint.
Evidence for this is visible in various folios, for example f1r, f3v, f26v, f57v, f67r2, f71r, f72v1, f72v3 and f73r. The bulk of the text in the page manuscript is written in an unknown script, running left to right. Most of the characters are composed of one or two simple pen strokes. Some dispute exists as to whether certain characters are distinct, but a script of 20—25 characters would account for virtually all of the text; the exceptions are a few dozen rarer characters that occur only once or twice each.
There is no obvious punctuation. There are no indications of any errors or corrections made at any place in the document. The ductus flows smoothly, giving the impression that the symbols were not enciphered ; there is no delay between characters, as would normally be expected in written encoded text. The words in Latin script appear to be distorted with characteristics of the unknown language.
The lettering resembles European alphabets of the late 14th and 15th centuries, but the words do not seem to make sense in any language. Transcription[ edit ] Various transcription alphabets have been created to equate the Voynich characters with Latin characters to help with cryptanalysis,  such as the Extensible originally: European Voynich Alphabet EVA. Friedman in the s, where each line of the manuscript was transcribed to an IBM punch card to make it machine readable.
Statistical patterns[ edit ] The text consists of over , characters,  with spaces dividing the text into about 35, groups of varying length, usually referred to as "words" or "word tokens" 37, ; 8, of those words are considered unique "word types". The distribution of letters within words is also rather peculiar: Some characters occur only at the beginning of a word, some only at the end, and some always in the middle section.
Few repetitions occur among the thousand or so labels attached to the illustrations. Words that differ by only one letter also repeat with unusual frequency, causing single-substitution alphabet decipherings to yield babble-like text. In , cryptanalyst Elizebeth Friedman described such attempts as "doomed to utter frustration". Each section is typified by illustrations with different styles and supposed subject matter  except for the last section, in which the only drawings are small stars in the margin.
The following are the sections and their conventional names: Herbal, folios: Each page displays one or two plants and a few paragraphs of text, a format typical of European herbals of the time.
Some parts of these drawings are larger and cleaner copies of sketches seen in the "pharmaceutical" section. None of the plants depicted are unambiguously identifiable. One series of 12 diagrams depicts conventional symbols for the zodiacal constellations two fish for Pisces , a bull for Taurus , a hunter with crossbow for Sagittarius , etc. Each of these has 30 female figures arranged in two or more concentric bands. Most of the females are at least partly nude, and each holds what appears to be a labeled star or is shown with the star attached to either arm by what could be a tether or cord of some kind.
The last two pages of this section were lost Aquarius and Capricornus , roughly January and February , while Aries and Taurus are split into four paired diagrams with 15 women and 15 stars each.
Some of these diagrams are on fold-out pages. The bifolio consists of folios 78 verso and 81 recto ; it forms an integrated design, with water flowing from one folio to the other.
This section also has foldouts; one of them spans six pages, commonly called the Rosettes folio, and contains a map or diagram with nine "islands" or "rosettes" connected by " causeways " and containing castles, as well as what might be a volcano. The herbal pictures that match pharmacological sketches appear to be clean copies of them, except that missing parts were completed with improbable-looking details. In fact, many of the plant drawings in the herbal section seem to be composite: the roots of one species have been fastened to the leaves of another, with flowers from a third.
However, interpretation remains speculative, apart from the obvious Zodiac symbols and one diagram possibly showing the classical planets. It has been suggested that McCrone Associates found that much of the ink was added not long after the creation of the parchment, but the official report contains no statement to this effect. Baresch was apparently puzzled about this " Sphynx " that had been "taking up space uselessly in his library" for many years.
His letter to Kircher is the earliest confirmed mention of the manuscript that has been found to date. A few years later, Marci sent the book to Kircher, his longtime friend and correspondent.
The former owner of this book asked your opinion by letter, copying and sending you a portion of the book from which he believed you would be able to read the remainder, but he at that time refused to send the book itself. To its deciphering he devoted unflagging toil, as is apparent from attempts of his which I send you herewith, and he relinquished hope only with his life.
But his toil was in vain, for such Sphinxes as these obey no one but their master, Kircher. Accept now this token, such as it is and long overdue though it be, of my affection for you, and burst through its bars, if there are any, with your wonted success. Raphael, a tutor in the Bohemian language to Ferdinand III, then King of Bohemia, told me the said book belonged to the Emperor Rudolph and that he presented to the bearer who brought him the book ducats.
He believed the author was Roger Bacon , the Englishman. On this point I suspend judgement; it is your place to define for us what view we should take thereon, to whose favor and kindness I unreservedly commit myself and remain At the command of your Reverence, Joannes Marcus Marci of Cronland Prague, 19th August, [or ] The "Dr.
Raphael" is believed to be Raphael Sobiehrd-Mnishovsky ,  and the sum would be about 2 kg of gold. Jacobus may have received the book from Rudolph II as part of the debt that was owed upon his death. The new Italian government decided to confiscate many properties of the Church, including the library of the Collegio. The sale took place in , but not all of the manuscripts listed for sale ended up going to the Vatican.
She died in and left the manuscript to her close friend Anne Nill. In , Nill sold the book to antique book dealer Hans P. Kraus was unable to find a buyer and donated the manuscript to Yale University in , where it was catalogued as "MS ",  sometimes also referred to as "Beinecke MS ".
The time when it was possibly created is shown in green early s , based on carbon dating of the vellum. The commonly accepted owners of the 17th century are shown in orange; the long period of storage in the Collegio Romano is yellow. Timeline of Voynich manuscript ownership Authorship hypotheses[ edit ] Many people have been proposed as possible authors of the Voynich manuscript, among them Roger Bacon , John Dee or Edward Kelley , Giovanni Fontana , and Voynich himself.
Rudolf II , portrait by Hans von Aachen. The assumption that Bacon was the author led Voynich to conclude that John Dee sold the manuscript to Rudolf. Edward Kelley might have created the manuscript as a fraud Dee and his scrier spirit medium Edward Kelley lived in Bohemia for several years, where they had hoped to sell their services to the emperor. These letters could possibly have been the motivation for Voynich to fabricate the manuscript, assuming that he was aware of them.
Rudolph II had ennobled him in , had appointed him his Imperial Distiller, and had made him curator of his botanical gardens as well as one of his personal physicians. Mueller sent some unintelligible text to Kircher with a note explaining that it had come from Egypt, and asking him for a translation. Kircher reportedly solved it.
Raphael Mnishovsky , the friend of Marci who was the reputed source of the Bacon story, was himself a cryptographer and apparently invented a cipher which he claimed was uncrackable c. Indeed, the disclaimer in the Voynich manuscript cover letter could mean that Marci suspected some kind of deception. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. January
Reviewer: HPalakat87 - favoritefavoritefavorite - August 26, Subject: Work of a Researcher Seeing the struggle of words or text between the drawings tells about the writer have first captured the visual elements from his close observation. He has seen the plants, women, stars and have first drew the picture. Later like his auto biography he started writing about it by his research between the drawings. The author has managed to group the individual papers together to form a journal as an archive of his research. As the texts are of in a single line it could be written by a women where most of the elements mentioned depicts to give a life or some form of life.
The Voynich Manuscript
Ilustraciones[ editar ] Las ilustraciones del manuscrito no aclaran los contenidos del texto pero denotan que el libro consta de seis "secciones", con diferente materia y estilo. Algunas de las mujeres llevan coronas. Posiblemente sean ninfas. Existen muy pocas repeticiones entre las miles de "leyendas" adjuntas a las ilustraciones. Se atribuye a los primeros propietarios reales del manuscrito la creencia de que su autor fue Roger Bacon Aparentemente, Barschius se encontraba tan confundido con respecto al libro como nos encontramos en la actualidad. No se encuentran menciones del libro en los dos siglos siguientes, aunque muy probablemente lo conservaron, junto con la correspondencia de Kircher, en la biblioteca del Collegio Romano actualmente la Universidad Pontificia Gregoriana.