Basic concepts[ edit ] Social stock of knowledge[ edit ] Earlier theories those of, for example, Max Scheler , Karl Mannheim , Werner Stark , Karl Marx , and Max Weber often paid too much attention to scientific and theoretical knowledge, but this is only a small part of social knowledge, concerning a very limited group. Customs, common interpretations, institutions, shared routines, habitualizations, the who-is-who and who-does-what in social processes and the division of labor, constitute a much larger part of knowledge in society. Knowledge of how the socially available stock of knowledge is distributed, at least in outline, is an important element of that same stock of knowledge. Language links up commonsense knowledge with finite provinces of meaning, thus enabling people, for example, to interpret dreams through understandings relevant in the daytime. It can refer to experiences pertaining to finite provinces of meaning, it can span discrete spheres of reality
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As it was mentioned, the theory of social constructionism is based on the correlation of the notions of subjectivity, objectivity and objectification, internalisation, and externalisation. Objectification is necessary to share the knowledge and to construct the reality round the people. In this case, the role of language is significant. It is also important to pay attention to the fact that the reality of definite social groups can be discussed as different because of the particular features of their perceiving the world objects and sharing the knowledge about them.
The concepts and constructs about the reality depend on the language and symbols used to distribute the definite knowledge within the group. Thus, Berger and Luckmann accentuate that the common knowledge shared by the definite social group forms the social reality and refer to the role of the language in the process as the means for objectification. Furthermore, this understanding is associated with developing the socially recognised concepts and constructs. From this point, it is necessary to refer to the idea of constructs.
This idea can be discussed as the supportive one to analyse the reality in relation to the social construction proposed by Berger and Luckmann.
Wallace does not argue this notion in the work, but provides the discussion of the theory accentuating its major ideas and aspects. The reality is constructed when the process of institutionalisation of the practice and knowledge is based on habitualisation and objectification. Thus, the reality is socially constructed not only because of the dependence on the shared common knowledge as a result of the social interactions but also because of the fact the knowledge is developed with references to some processes such as habitualisation and objectification.
Then, the knowledge becomes institutionalised, and it forms the reality which can be discussed as socially constructed. Tulloch provides some points to support the opinion that the constructed reality actually depends on the correlation of externalisation, objectification, and internalisation as it was claimed by Berger and Luckmann Tulloch
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