GRANADA PUNICA GRANATUM PDF

This is a folk etymology, confusing the Latin granatus with the name of the Spanish city of Granada , which derives from Arabic. This derivation may have originated from pomum granatum, describing the color of pomegranate pulp, or from granum, referring to "red dye, cochineal ". Fruit, sarcotesta and seeds[ edit ] Red-purple in color, the pomegranate fruit husk has two parts: an outer, hard pericarp , and an inner, spongy mesocarp white "albedo" , which comprises the fruit inner wall where seeds attach. Mature specimens can develop sculptural twisted-bark multiple trunks and a distinctive overall form. Pomegranates are drought -tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates.

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Gen info - Pomegranate has been in traditional medicinal use for more than years. Ancient and mystical, it has been written about in the Old Testament of the Bible, the Jewish Torah, and the Babylonian Talmud as a sacred fruit with powers that bestow fertility, abundance, and good luck.

It is also part of the iconography of rituals, art, and mythology - the personal emblem of the Roman Emperor, Maximilian, the symbol and heraldic device of the ancient city of Granada in Spain.

Branchlets are slender and 4-angled. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic; 4 to 6 centimeters long, short-stalked, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are red and showy, usually with six segments in the calyx which are 2. Petals are obovate, about 2 centimeters long.

Stamens are numerous. Fruit is rounded, reddish-yellow or purplish, 7 to 10 centimeters in diameter. Rind is thin, tough, and brittle. Fruit contains numerous seeds, each seed surrounded by a watery, translucent, flavorful pinkish-red pulp. Distribution - Garden plant in the Philippines. Constituents - Fruit is rich in vitamin C; a good source of iron. Adapted from USDA Nutrient Database 58 Properties - In Indian traditional medicine, considered astringent, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, laxative, diuretic, stomachic, cardiotonic and refrigerant.

Parts used Roots, flowers, seeds and fruit rinds. Eaten green as boiled vegetable; ripe, iced and sugared. Anardana, a powdered form of pomegranate seed, is a form of spice. Infusion of flowers used as vermifuge. In Unani medicine, used for diabetes. Others - Ink: Ink prepared from fruit rind. Branches used as firewood. Toxic effects of P granatum fruit extract only occurred at higher doses than those effective in models where the anti-viral activity has been studied in Cuban folk medicine.

Study suggests the potential of bioactive compounds to be developed from P. The study showed high activity against all strains of E.

A bioactive agent may be developed from Punica granatum pericarp as an alternative treatment for E. Results establish the efficacy of PG seed extract as an antidiarrheal agent. Results of in vivo and in vitro assays detected DNA damage at different expression levels.

Extracts have been shown to scavenge free radicals and decrease macrophage oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in animals. Histopath studies supported the protective effects of the methanolic extract of pomegranate peel by restoring the normal hepatic architecture. Results suggest that PFE-derived bioavailable compounds may exert anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine-induced production of PGE-2 and NO in vivo.

Best results of histopathological evaluation were also obtained with P granatum. Analysis also showed the presence of gallic acid and catechin as major components. Animals treated showed moderate to good healing depending on the concentration of the gel formulation. The study was funded by a pomegranate juice company.

Phenolic compounds, tannins, and flavonoids were the major phytochemicals in both extracts. Results showed dose-depended suppression of proliferation of PC3 cells with in vitro attenuation of human prostate cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis.

Antibacterial activity was attributed to the ellagitannin, punicalagin. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed better activity attributed to their higher phenolic contents. Results showed methanol crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antifungal activity.

Results showed curative potential attributed to its high antioxidant activity. Results showed protection of mouse testes against radiation induced damage, possibly through scavenging of free radicals and increasing antioxidant status. Results also suggest potential for restoring fertility in irradiated patients.

An ethanol extract showed dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizure models, attributed to its saponin, flavonoids, triterpenes and alkaloid ingredients. The synthesized colloidal AuNPs have been utilized as catalyst for the borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Results suggest a potential for biomedical applications as well as nanoscience and nanotechnology. Results showed concentration dependent suppression of DNA damage by various extracts of pulp and juice, indicating a cytoprotective property under SGD conditions in PC12 cells, suggesting a therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders.

The biogas yield of P. Study suggests the ellagitannins and urolithins liberated in the colon from administration of pomegranate juice, in considerable amounts, could potentially reduce the risk of colon cancer progress through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

The extract showed dose dependent activity, with significant increase in uterine weight, femur BMD, and femur hardness, together with increased of serum calcium and phosphorus in the serum and significant decrease in the urine.

Results suggest potent estrogenic activity in ovariectomized rats and supports its folkloric use in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Results showed antibacterial and antifungal activity on all tested bacteria and fungi, with improvement of wound contraction and healing. Both ointment and lotion formulation of the rind showed wound healing properties. Oral pretreatment with dried extracts produced statistically significant and dose dependent inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at all test doses.

Extracts also showed analgesic activity in mice against tail-flick method. All extracts showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in cell proliferation.

In this study, Rhazya showed highest cytotoxic effect. Results suggest P. Results demonstrated pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and suggests a potential therapeutic role in free radical mediated disease.

Significant mortalities were recorded on adults treated with aqueous, ethanol, and methanol extracts. All the extracts were effective in checking mycelial growth only for P. Results suggest the extracts have potential in protecting plants from pests and disease infections. Results showed the peel extract reduced pain and improved clinical signs and symptoms in women with knee OA. The MIC of the peel extract approximated that of clotrimazole. Participants showed significant improvements in all domains of the menopausal rating scale MRS , including difficult to treat urogenital symptoms.

Tolerability was excellent. Results showed the extract alone could cause mild to moderate liver injury. Study presents pomegranate extract as a promising dietary potential for the prevention of emergence of androgenc independence driven in part by heightened NF-kappaB activity.

This study showed enhanced breast cancer preventive potential both for purified compound peak B and pomegranate seed oil, greater than previously reported for pomegranate fermented juice polyphenols. Drinking pomegranate juice might decrease the liver breakdown of rosuvastatin Crestor and increase the effects and side effects of rosuvastatin. Pomegranate, by decreasing the breakdown of drugs, might increase the effects and side effects of some medications: amitriptyline Elavil , codeine, desipramine Norpramine flecainide Tambocor , fluoxetine Prozac , ondansetron Zofran , tramadol Ultram , among others.

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