HALAF CULTURE PDF

Origin[ edit ] Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq. Currently, eleven occupational layers have been unearthed in Sabi Abyad. Levels from 11 to 7 are considered pre-Halaf; from 6 to 4, transitional; and from 3 to 1, early Halaf. No hiatus in occupation is observed except between levels 11 and

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Origin[ edit ] Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq. Currently, eleven occupational layers have been unearthed in Sabi Abyad. Levels from 11 to 7 are considered pre-Halaf; from 6 to 4, transitional; and from 3 to 1, early Halaf.

No hiatus in occupation is observed except between levels 11 and Only a few of these structures were ever excavated. They were constructed of mud-brick sometimes on stone foundations and may have been for ritual use one contained a large number of female figurines.

Other circular buildings were probably just houses. Halaf pottery[ edit ] The best known, most characteristic pottery of Tell Halaf, called Halaf ware, produced by specialist potters, can be painted, sometimes using more than two colors called polychrome with geometric and animal motifs. Other types of Halaf pottery are known, including unpainted, cooking ware and ware with burnished surfaces. There are many theories about why the distinctive pottery style developed.

The theory is that the pottery came about due to regional copying and that it was exchanged as a prestige item between local elites is now disputed. The polychrome painted Halaf pottery has been proposed to be a "trade pottery"—pottery produced for export—however, the predominance of locally produced painted pottery in all areas of Halaf sites including potters settlement questions that theory.

Halaf pottery has been found in other parts of northern Mesopotamia, such as at Nineveh and Tepe Gawra , Chagar Bazar and at many sites in Anatolia Turkey suggesting that it was widely used in the region. In addition, the Halaf communities made female figurines of partially baked clay and stone and stamp seals of stone, see also Impression seal.

The seals are thought to mark the development of concepts of personal property, as similar seals were used for this purpose in later times. The Halaf people used tools made of stone and clay. Copper was also known, but was not used for tools.

Fragment of a bowl; — BC; cermaic; 8. Loop-handled circular seal. Economy[ edit ] Dryland farming was practiced by the population. This type of farming was based on exploiting natural rainfall without the help of irrigation, in a similar practice to that still practiced today by the Hopi people of Arizona. Emmer wheat , two-rowed barley and flax were grown. They kept cattle, sheep and goats.

The first maintain an invasion and a replacement of the Halafians by the Ubaidians, however, there is no hiatus between the Halaf and northern Ubaid which exclude the invasion theory.

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Ancient Mesopotamia

Economie[ bewerken brontekst bewerken ] Landbouw en veeteelt waren de belangrijkste middelen van bestaan. Bij de verbouw van emmertarwe , tweerijige gerst en vlas werd geen irrigatie toegepast. Verder hield men runderen, schapen en geiten. Verder maakten de Halafgemeenschappen vrouwenfiguren van gedeeltelijk gebakken klei en natuursteen en stempelzegels van steen. Koper was bekend maar werd niet gebruikt om gereedschap van te maken. Terracotta figurines uit de Halafcultuur.

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Tell Halaf

Works of Art 9 Essay In the period — B. This culture is known as Halaf, after the site of Tell Halaf in northeastern Syria where it was first identified. The Halaf potters used different sources of clay from their neighbors and achieved outstanding elaboration and elegance of design with their superior quality ware. Some of the most beautifully painted polychrome ceramics were produced toward the end of the Halaf period. This distinctive pottery has been found from southeastern Turkey to Iran, but may have its origins in the region of the River Khabur modern Syria. How and why it spread so widely is a matter of continuing debate, although analysis of the clay indicates the existence of production centers and regional copying.

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