Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people immediately after the Words of Institution. If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem towards the apse , ad orientem towards the east if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head. As each is shown, a bell once called "the sacring bell" is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed General Instruction of the Roman Missal , Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are genuflections and keeping both hands joined together.
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Concentration on the exact moment of change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ has led, in the Roman Rite, to the consecrated Host and the chalice being shown to the people immediately after the Words of Institution.
If, as was once most common, the priest offers Mass while facing ad apsidem towards the apse , ad orientem towards the east if the apse is at the east end of the church, he shows them to the people, who are behind him, by elevating them above his head.
As each is shown, a bell once called "the sacring bell" is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed General Instruction of the Roman Missal , Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well. Other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are genuflections and keeping both hands joined together.
We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis and allusions to it in the 4th century. So our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all. It is still redolent of that liturgy, of the days when Caesar ruled the world and thought he could stamp out the faith of Christ, when our fathers met together before dawn and sang a hymn to Christ as to a God.
The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of later changes, there is not in Christendom another rite so venerable as ours.
Eastern rites have been modified later too; some of them quite late. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass. In the interval, there was what Fortescue called "a radical change".
He quoted the theory of A. Leo I began to make these changes; Gregory I finished the process and finally recast the Canon in the form it still has. During the same time the prayers of the faithful before the Offertory disappeared, the kiss of peace was transferred to after the Consecration, and the Epiklesis was omitted or mutilated into our "Supplices" prayer.
We must then admit that between the years and a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon" Euch. In the same article Fortescue went on to speak of the many alterations that the Roman Rite of Mass underwent from the 7th century on see Pre-Tridentine Mass , in particular through the infusion of Gallican elements, noticeable chiefly in the variations for the course of the year.
This infusion Fortescue called the "last change since Gregory the Great" who died in Before the high Middle Ages , several books were used at Mass: a Sacramentary with the prayers , one or more books for the Scriptural readings, and one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Gradually, manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, leading finally to versions that were complete in themselves.
The version of the Mass in the s edition became known as the Tridentine Mass. Various relatively minor revision were made in the centuries following, culminating in the edition promulgated by Pope John XXIII. The edition of the Roman Missal was promulgated by Pope Paul VI , issued in response to the council, introduced several major revisions, including simplifying the rituals and permitting translations into local vernacular languages. The version of the Mass in this missal, known colloquially as the Mass of Paul VI , is currently in use throughout the world.
Arrangement of churches[ edit ] The Roman Rite no longer has the pulpitum , or rood screen , a dividing wall characteristic of certain medieval cathedrals in northern Europe, or the iconostasis or curtain that heavily influences the ritual of some other rites. In large churches of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance the area near the main altar, reserved for the clergy, was separated from the nave the area for the laity by means of a rood screen extending from the floor to the beam that supported the great cross the rood of the church and sometimes topped by a loft or singing gallery.
However, by about the Roman Rite had quite abandoned rood screens, although some fine examples survive. Chant[ edit ] Gregorian chant is the traditional chant of the Roman Rite. Being entirely monophonic, it does not have the dense harmonies of present-day chanting in the Russian and Georgian churches.
Except in such pieces as the graduals and alleluias , it does not have melismata as lengthy as those of Coptic Christianity. However, the music of the Roman Rite became very elaborate and lengthy when Western Europe adopted polyphony. Therefore it became normal in the Tridentine Mass for the priest to say Mass, not sing it, in contrast to the practice in all Eastern rites.
Only on special occasions and in the principal Mass in monasteries and cathedrals was the Mass sung. The ordained celebrant priest or bishop is understood to act in persona Christi , as he recalls the words and gestures of Jesus Christ at the Last Supper and leads the congregation always "we", never "I" in praise of God.
Although similar in outward appearance to the Anglican Mass or Lutheran Mass,   the Catholic Church distinguishes between its own Mass and theirs on the basis of what it views as the validity of the orders of their clergy, and as a result, does not ordinarily permit intercommunion between members of these Churches.
For many variations and options not mentioned here, see the complete Order of the Mass. The priest makes the sign of the cross with the people and formally greets them. Of the options offered for the Introductory Rites, that preferred by liturgists would bridge the praise of the opening hymn with the Glory to God which follows.
Liturgy of the Word[ edit ] On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament a term wider than " Hebrew Scriptures ", since it includes the Deuterocanonical Books , or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide.
The first reading is followed by a psalm, recited or sung responsorially. The second reading is from the New Testament , typically from one of the Pauline epistles. A Gospel acclamation is then sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, to the ambo. The final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest.
On all Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation , and preferably at all Masses, a homily , a sermon that draws upon some aspect of the readings or the liturgy itself, is then given.
Liturgy of the Eucharist[ edit ] The Elevation of the host began in the 14th century to show people the consecrated host. The Liturgy of the Eucharist begins with the preparation of the altar and gifts,  while the collection may be taken.
This concludes with the priest saying: "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the almighty Father. Then in dialogue with the faithful the priest brings to mind the meaning of "eucharist", to give thanks to God. A variable prayer of thanksgiving follows, concluding with the Sanctus acclamation. The anaphora , or more properly "Eucharistic Prayer", follows, The oldest of the anaphoras of the Roman Rite, fixed since the Council of Trent , is called the Roman Canon , with central elements dating to the fourth century.
Central to the Eucharist is the Institution Narrative , recalling the words and actions of Jesus at his Last Supper , which he told his disciples to do in remembrance of him.
The priest introduces it with a short phrase and follows it up with a prayer called the embolism , after which the people respond with another doxology. The sign of peace is exchanged and then the " Lamb of God " "Agnus Dei" in Latin litany is sung or recited, while the priest breaks the host and places a piece in the main chalice; this is known as the rite of fraction and commingling.
Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb," to which all respond: "Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed. A silent time for reflection follows, and then the variable concluding prayer of the Mass. Concluding rite[ edit ] The priest imparts a blessing over those present.
The deacon or, in his absence, the priest himself then dismisses the people, choosing one of four formulas by which the people are "sent forth" to spread the good news. The congregation responds: "Thanks be to God.
The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia) - Vol. 1
In their evaluation of a legitimate restoration of formerly defunct rites, any restoration should have avoided fictitious liturgiology and made certain that neither meaning nor context was lost. According to the liturgical opinion at the time, this prayer was originally part of the ancient Roman Rite and had been lost. Justin Martyr. Justin is well known to have described the ancient Greek usage of largely non-Roman Christians living in Rome in the second century, which has very little to do with the Roman rite directly. The document does not concern itself with this point. Hippolitus was formerly believed to have been the author of an ancient text of worship for the Church in Rome in the third century The Apostolic Tradition.
After several years of pastoral service as vicar in the parishes of Niedervintl and Gossensass he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus on 23 September in St. In he took up studies at the Jesuit theologate of Innsbruck, earning the degree Doctor of Theology in From to he taught in Munich and Vienna. On 9 November he was awarded the honorary doctorate of the University of Salzburg.
The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia)
Evidence of collusion Fr. Jungmann: a liturgical giant with feet of clay Josef Jungmann published his magnum opus on the history of the Roman Rite, Missarum Sollemnia, in , 4 see here which was long hailed as a classic of liturgical scholarship and became the ultimate reference and definitive resource book for the Liturgical Movement. And he did not scruple to skew the evidence in favor of his own preconceptions. One could say that, in some areas, Jungmann raised the falsification of data to an art form.
Josef Andreas Jungmann
Life[ edit ] Jungmann studied in Brixen , Innsbruck , Munich , and Vienna and was ordained a priest in After several years of pastoral service as vicar in the parishes of Niedervintl and Gossensass he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus on 23 September in St. In he took up studies at the Jesuit theologate of Innsbruck, earning the degree Doctor of Theology in From to he taught in Munich and Vienna.