Kazibar Cookies mentioned in the last point are Google analytics cookies that are IP anonymized which means that we cannot trace single users. Jones and Baker report that K. Similar symptoms kabatirlla also be produced by insect feeding particularly by aphids or the improper application of herbicides. Eyespot is most severe when crop residues are left on the soil at the end of the growing period and in fields where maize is grown continuously Lipps and Mills, Report on the occurrence of important diseases and pests on cultivated plants in Austria in the year Resistance to Kabatiella zeae in corn Zea mays L. Importance of maize diseases in Austria with special consideration of varietal resistance.
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None Impact Top of page Economic losses to eyespot are uncommon Walker Kirby, ; however, losses can occur when infection is severe; when much of the leaf area is blighted within weeks after silking; when early and severe leaf blighting occurs on suceptible hybrids grown in no-till or reduced tillage fields; when defoliation from leaf blighting increases stalk rot losses from lodged maize ; and when the season is abnormally cool and the disease attacks maize earlier in the season Lipps and Mills, Diagnosis Top of page Leaf samples showing typical symptoms of eyespot should be collected and the pathogen isolated using a weighing method.
Potato-glucose PDA medium can be used to re-isolate the fungus. Representative cultures are produced and uniembryonate cultures are obtained by a method of multiple dilutions. Detection and Inspection Top of page The first symptoms of eyespot disease can be seen in June, but most often they appear at the beginning of July, depending on atmospheric conditions. When inspecting fields for eyespot, look for typical symptoms on the leaves. Similar symptoms can also be produced by insect feeding particularly by aphids or the improper application of herbicides.
Early spotting, caused by Curvularia, produces similar symptoms to eyespot. Prevention and Control Top of page Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Thorough cultivation and crop rotation can reduce early infection by K.
Arny et al. The amount of infectious material can be reduced by a suitable crop rotation and thorough ploughing and destruction of after-harvest residues, particularly from seriously infected plants. Deep ploughing of crop debris prevents sporulation of the stromas and promotes decomposition HYP3, thus limiting early season spread. Resistance to K. Even a known source of resistance such as the line Oh43 can be subject to infection in the case of epiphytosis Reifschneider and Arny, Fungicides registered for use against K.
For effective protection against K. More than one application may be necessary when conditions are favourable to the disease. The use of fungicides against eyespot can be prohibitively expensive, except on seed production fields Lipps and Mills, Pest control plays an important role in reducing the occurrence of eyespot, particularly the control of Aphididae and Thysanoptera, which feed on maize and can facilitate the penetration of conidia.
References Anon, Farmers Guardian. Eyespot of maize, a disease new to North America. Phytopathology, Bohm H; Glaeser G, Report on the occurrence of important diseases and pests on cultivated plants in Austria in Pflanzenschutzberichte, , ; Borecki Z, Polskie Towarzystwo Fitopatologiczne, Monitoring the occurrence and severity of maize diseases in Croatia from to Zastita Bilja, 42 1 Carson ML, First report of eyespot Kabatiella zeae of corn in South Dakota. Plant Disease, 69 2 Cassini R, Helminthosporium maydis, race T and Kabatiella zeae, two new pathogens of maize in France.
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