Ein Gott in drei Personen? Autor ist Prof. Der katholische Prof. Jesus - Gottes ewiger Sohn? Muss man sie nicht vielmehr als einen Inkulturationsvorgang, der nur innerhalb der damaligen Kontexte unausweichlich und wohl auch legitim war - weil anders das Christentum nicht lebbar war -, verstehen, also als eine kontingente, kontextuelle Komplizierung der jesuanischen Gottesvorstellung?
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Karl-Heinz Ohlig: All the information we posses on the origins of Islam is taken from later texts — "biographies" that were written in the 9th and 10th centuries. One of these texts, the Annals of at-Tabari 10th century , is also the source of further histories. As such, we lack any corroborating contemporary texts for the first two centuries. Can these later documents still be regarded as accurate?
From a scholarly point of view, are they not something akin to falsifications? Ohlig: To categorize these texts, or similarly the books of Moses or the Romulus and Remus tale, as falsifications would be entirely wrong, as one has to take into consideration this specific literary genre. Religious-political foundation myths are not history texts and nor were they meant to be. You advocate the thesis that Islam was not conceived as an independent religion.
What proof do you have for this claim? Ohlig: According to the evidence of Christian literature under Arab rule from the 7th and 8th centuries, as well as from Arab coinage and inscriptions from this period, such as that on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the new rulers adhered to a Syrian-Persian form of Christianity that rejected the decisions of the Council of Nicaea.
Instead, it regarded Jesus as the messenger, the prophet, the servant of God, but not the physical son of God, who is a strictly unitary being not "adjoined" to any person. The fathers of the Church, for instance, regarded John of Damascus d. There is no mention of a new, independent religion of the Arabs before the 9th century. Does this mean that Islam was only made into an independent religion at a later date? Ohlig: This formulation sounds somewhat arbitrary or like a conscious decision.
It is much more the case that religions often arise in that a new assessment is made of the inherited religious conceptions of a tradition. These are then interpreted differently, solidified, and systematized in a specific manner.
You have also engaged in historical-critical research with respect to the Prophet Mohammed. What can be said about his person? Ohlig: It has been established that the earliest coinage with the motto MHMT appeared in eastern Mesopotamia around , made their way westward, and there bilingual coins were stamped with MHMT in the center and muhammad in Arabic script at the edge.
These coins bear a Christian iconography, i. It also fits in with the polemics of John of Damascus against statements he considered heretical. Later, it seems as if this Christological predicate lost its reference, so that it appears in the Koran as a frequently mentioned, nameless prophet, which could then be historicized into the form of an Arab prophet.
The earliest source of this historicization is to be found in writings of John of Damascus, who speaks of the pseudo-prophet Mamed. Only later could the wealth of stories of this Mohammed fill out the historical deficit.
So what you are saying is that the term muhammad could possibly be referring to Christ? Ohlig: It is entirely possible — even when previously historically improvable — that an important preacher was present at the beginning or at another point in the history of the Koran movement. However, according to the evidence of Arab coins and the inscription in the Dome of the Rock, it must be assumed that the term muhammad, the revered or the praiseworthy, was originally a Christological honorific title.
Western Islamic studies remains preoccupied with philology without employing the established methods of historical scholarship. Similarly, there is little religious-historical or Christian theological investigation into the extremely varied cultural traditions of the Middle East.
As such, the roots and motives of these traditions are not recognized. In your book "Early Islam," you write that you do not wish to harm this religion. Many Muslims will see the exact opposite in your work. Ohlig: Since the 18th century, many Christians, even to this day, regard the Enlightenment as an attack and an attempt to destroy their religion. In reality, however, it has allowed Christianity to survive in the modern world and also be applicable to the lives of modern man.
In his long and detailed plea for a secular Islamic Studies, Tilman Nagel calls on the discipline to emancipate itself from the Muslim understanding of Mohammed if it wants to get closer to historical reality The Emergence of Islam No Prophet Named Muhammad?
Its authors claim to be able to trace the actual emergence of Islam through recourse to "contemporary sources".
Karl Heinz Ohlig – Muhammad as a Christological Honorific Title [Läs detta]
Karl-Heinz Ohlig: All the information we posses on the origins of Islam is taken from later texts — "biographies" that were written in the 9th and 10th centuries. One of these texts, the Annals of at-Tabari 10th century , is also the source of further histories. As such, we lack any corroborating contemporary texts for the first two centuries. Can these later documents still be regarded as accurate? From a scholarly point of view, are they not something akin to falsifications? Ohlig: To categorize these texts, or similarly the books of Moses or the Romulus and Remus tale, as falsifications would be entirely wrong, as one has to take into consideration this specific literary genre. Religious-political foundation myths are not history texts and nor were they meant to be.
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Puin continues the pioneering research begun in the first volume into the earliest development of Islam. Using coins, commemorative building inscriptions, and a rigorous linguistic analysis of the Koran along with Persian and Christian literature from the seventh and eighth centuries--when Islam was in its formative stages--five expert contributors attempt a reconstruction of this critical time period. Controversial and highly intriguing, this critical historical analysis reveals the beginning of Islam in a completely new light. Furthermore, most of the existing biographical traditions that can be used to substantiate the life of Muhammad date to nearly two centuries after his death, a time when a powerful, expansive, and idealized empire had become synonymous with his name and vision - thus resulting in an exaggerated and often artificial characterization of the prophetic figure coupled with many questionable interpretations of the holy book of Islam. On the basis of datable and localizable artifacts from the seventh and eighth centuries of the Christian era, many of the historical developments, misconceptions, and fallacies of Islam can now be seen in a different light. Excavated coins that predate Islam and the old inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem utilize symbols used in a documented Syrian Arabic theology - a theology with Christian roots. The study shall demonstrate that the dogma of the Trinity is a product of historical developments.
Its authors claim to be able to trace the actual emergence of Islam through recourse to "contemporary sources". Its authors advance the view that Islam began as a Christian heresy, having developed in Eastern Iran among Christians who had originally been deported from Mesopotamia mainly Hatra. After the downfall of the Sassanian Empire in CE, these Christians are supposed to have assumed power and transplanted their Christology to Damascus and Jerusalem, where, towards the end of the 7th century, texts that had been brought from Iran by the ruler Abd al-Malik were translated from Syrian into a Syro-Aramaic-Arabic hybrid language. Muhammad, "title of the Messiah Jesus"?